Mobile marketing communications in the retail environment: a comparison of QR code users and non-users
In response to the trend toward ubiquitous mobile communications, this study compares shopping-‐related personal characteristics and behaviors of QR code users with those of non-‐users. Data was collected from 258 university students in the United States. The respondents were evaluated on eight criteria: consumer innovativeness, market mavenism, achievement-‐seeking shopping behavior, efficiency-‐seeking shopping behavior, adventure-‐seeking shopping behavior, idea-‐seeking shopping behavior, value-‐seeking shopping behavior, and extent of prior mobile shopping experience. Following data analysis, it was confirmed that QR code users exhibited higher levels of consumer innovativeness and market mavenism and sought greater shopping achievement, adventure, ideas, and value (discounts) than non-‐users. In addition, QR code users reported more prior mobile shopping experience than non-‐users; however, no significant difference was found in efficiency-‐seeking behavior between the two groups. The study concludes with a section that discusses the implications for retailers to develop more effective mobile marketing communications using QR codes and suggested directions for future research.