Competing for consumer memory in television advertising
The purpose of this study is to examine how brand recall and recognition are affected by non-editorial clutter in mega-event broadcasting. Using longitudinal data collected during four years of Super Bowl broadcasts, this study investigates the effects of three different types of television clutter (other ads, on-air promos and TV billboards) and their composite effects on brand memory. The results show that increases in numbers and lengths of other ads and on-air promos negatively affect brand recall and recognition. However, such effect was not found with TV billboards. Theoretical and marketing implications are discussed.